What is hypertension?
- Hypertension Treatment | Sunflower Hospital Nagpur | Dr Jay Deshmukh:- Arterial blood pressure is the lateral pressure exerted by the blood on the arterial walls. It facilitates during each cardiac cycle between a maximum called systolic BP and a minimum called diastolic blood pressure. Hypertension should be defined in terms of blood pressure level above which investigations and treatment do more good than harm. A blood pressure level that increases the vascular risk in patients sufficient to require intervention is also labelled as hypertension.
What are the risk factors for hypertension?
- These could either be Non- modifiable like age, gender, race and genetic factors. The modifiable factors are diet, physical activity., obesity, alcohol in excess, stress and obstructive sleep apnea.
Why should high blood pressure level be treated?
- Hypertension Treatment| Sunflower Hospital Nagpur | Dr Jay Deshmukh:- For individuals aged 40-69 years each increment in systolic blood pressure of 20mm of Hg or diastolic of 10 mm, Hg doubles the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This includes strokes, ischemic heart disease and other vascular diseases. In clinical trials, anti-hypertension treatment is associated with reductions in stroke incidence by 40%, myocardial infarction by 25% and heart failure by 50 %.
What is primary and secondary hypertension?
- Hypertension Treatment | Sunflower Hospital Nagpur | Dr Jay Deshmukh:- Primary hypertension is present in 92% of hypertension patients. Secondary cases are very few. Primary hypertension is a lifestyle disease and also due to genetic factors. Secondary hypertension has individuals in whom the cause of hypertension is evident. These include chronic kidney diseases, primary aldosteronism, renal artery stenosis and sleep apnea.
Why salt restriction is important in the treatment of hypertension?
- As per the Intersalt study restriction of salt of 5 grams may result in a reduction of systolic blood pressure by 10 mm and diastolic pressure by 5 mm. Hence salt restriction is extremely important for hypertension patients
What about obesity?
- Hypertension Treatment | Sunflower Hospital Nagpur | Dr Jay Deshmukh:- Greater the weight gain, greater the risk of hypertension. Scientific data also indicates that those hypertensives who lose weight, their blood pressure also reduces. Central obesity indicated by the increased waist to hip ratio has been positively correlated with high blood pressure in several populations.
What about stress and hypertension?
- Hypertension Treatment | Sunflower Hospital Nagpur | Dr Jay Deshmukh:- Many psychological factors play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Psychosocial factors operate through mental processes, consciously or subconsciously to cause hypertension. Studies on BP and catecholamine levels in young people revealed significantly higher levels of noradrenaline in hypertensives than normotensives.
What about physical activity and hypertension?
- Hypertension Treatment | Sunflower Hospital Nagpur | Dr Jay Deshmukh:- It is estimated that 34% of the incident hypertension in populations, may be prevented if adults moved to higher physical activity and fitness levels. Incident hypertension is inversely associated with fitness and physical activity levels.
What is the scenario of hypertension in India?
- Hypertension Treatment | Sunflower Hospital Nagpur | Dr Jay Deshmukh:- The burden of hypertension is about 40% in the urban areas and 17% in rural areas. The number of hypertensives is likely to increase from 139 million in 2008 to 214 million in 2030. Indian Council of Medical Research attributes hypertension to 16% of ischemic heart diseases, 21 % to peripheral vascular diseases, 24 % to acute myocardial infarction and 29% of stroke.
Author: Dr Jay Deshmukh
Dr Jay Deshmukh is Chief Physician and Director, Sunflower Hospital, Nagpur Honorary Physician to Honorable Governor of Maharashtra and PondicherryCentral. Dr Jay Deshmukh is an M.B.B.S., M.C.P.S., F.C.P.S., M.N.A.M.S., MD From Internal Medicine – Bombay and New Delhi.